Health & wellbeing
The health of Trafford’s population is varied compared with the average for England. There is wide variation in terms of healthy life expectancy (HLE) within Trafford and reducing this inequality is the overarching priority of Trafford’s Health and Wellbeing Board. Healthy Life Expectancy in the most deprived 10% of areas in Trafford is around 16 years lower than in the least deprived 10% (Trafford JSNA, 2020).
Figure 1 presents a summary of life expectancy and HLE in Trafford using Public Health Outcomes Framework data for the period 2016-2018.
Child Health and Wellbeing
In 2018, 3.4% of babies born live at term in Trafford had low birthweight. Within Trafford, the proportion is higher in areas with greater child poverty rates (Child and Maternal Health, 2018). Around 1 out of 5 (19.9%) Trafford Reception children are overweight or obese. Prevalence of obesity in Trafford Reception children living in areas that rank in the 20% most deprived in England is more than double that of children living in areas ranked 20% least deprived. (Child and Maternal Health, 2019).
Trafford has relatively high levels of hospital use by under 5s. A high proportion of emergency admissions are zero length of stay, and a high proportion of A&E attendances end in discharge without further follow up – potentially indicative that hospital was not the most appropriate setting for these children (Child and Maternal Health, 2019).
About 1 in 5 five year olds have one or more teeth affected by tooth decay, and tooth extraction is a common reason for planned admission to hospital in this age group (Child and Maternal Health, 2019).
Causes of Death
Infant mortality (deaths under 1 year of age) is an important indicator of the general health of a population and reflects the relationship between its causes and macro-level determinants of population health including economic, social and environmental conditions. The infant mortality rate in Trafford in 2017-2019 is 3.6 per 1,000 live births, statistically similar to England (3.9 per 1,000). The trend in infant mortality rate has remained steady over the past decade (Child and Maternal Health, 2019). Between 2013 and 2017, more than half of infant deaths in Trafford occurred in the first week of life, with most linked to extreme prematurity. The infant mortality rate is highest in the North locality of Trafford. (Source: Primary Care Mortality Database).
Preventable deaths are classified as mortality rates for causes of death that are considered preventable i.e. where all or most deaths could potentially be prevented by public health interventions in the broadest sense. Social determinants of health (for example economic and social conditions) contribute significantly to levels of preventable ill health and mortality. Often the most vulnerable in society are at the greatest risk of developing preventable conditions through personal behaviour that is influenced by social pressures, such as job insecurity and poverty.
Leading causes of preventable deaths include smoking, high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity and alcohol.
- Directly standardised mortality rate from causes considered preventable for Trafford (186 per 100,000 population) is statistically similar to England (180.8 per 100,000) (Public Health Profiles, 2018).
- Under-75 mortality rate from coronary heart diseases considered preventable for Trafford (39.2 per 100,000) is similar to England rate of 37.5 per 100,000 (Public Health Profiles, 2019).
- Under-75 mortality rate from cancer considered preventable for Trafford (78.7 per 100,000) is similar to England average of 76.3 per 100,000 (Public Health Profiles, 2018).
- Under-75 mortality rate from respiratory disease considered preventable for Trafford (17.1 per 100,000) is similar to England average of 19.2 per 100,000 (Public Health Profiles, 2018).
- Under-75 mortality rate from liver disease considered preventable for Trafford (18.9 per 100,000) is similar to England average of 16.3 per 100,000 (Public Health Profiles, 2018).
To summarise, preventable death rates for the main causes of premature mortality (cardiovascular disease, cancer, liver disease and respiratory disease), as well as the subsets within them, are all statistically similar to the average rates for England. People in the North and West of the borough are much more likely than those in the South or Central locality to die before the age of 75 from preventable causes, particularly from circulatory and respiratory disease.
Premature deaths are classified as deaths under 75 years of age for all causes.
- Premature mortality rate from all causes is significantly lower (308 per 100,000 population) in Trafford than England of 326 per 100,000 (Mortality Profile, 2019).
- The rate of premature mortality for males in Trafford (376 per 100,000) is similar to England rate of 397 per 100,000 (Mortality Profile, 2019).
- The rate of premature mortality for females in Trafford (244 per 100,000) is similar to England rate of 258 per 100,000 (Mortality Profile, 2019).
- Between 2007-2009 and 2017-2019 there had been steady decline in the premature mortality rate across Trafford. The premature mortality rate has gone from similar to England average during the period 2013-2015 to below England average during 2017-2019 (Mortality Profile, 2019).
Behavioural Risk Factors
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths in England and is the single biggest risk factor for the burden of preventable cancers. It contributes to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic respiratory conditions. An estimated 9.1% of Trafford adults are smokers, which is lower (statistically significant) than England (14.5%) for the year 2019 (Local Tobacco Control Profiles, 2019). Smoking prevalence in routine and manual workers has seen a sharp decline from 26.4% in 2018 to 17.4% in 2019 and is statistically similar to England as a benchmark (Local Tobacco Control Profiles, 2019).
Physical Inactivity can be one of the causes of different chronic diseases. It increases the risk of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart diseases, stroke, diabetes and certain forms of cancers (uterus, colon, breast). In 2018/2019, 19% of adults in Trafford were found to be physically inactive (engaging in less than 30 minutes of physical activity per week) and was statistically similar to England as a benchmark (Physical Activity, 2019).
Obesity rates in the UK are the highest in Europe and have increased at a faster rates compared with other OECD countries (OECD, 2020). Around 3 out of every five Trafford adults are overweight or obese (Body Mass Index or BMI is greater than or equal to 25kg/m2) and represents a significant public health issue for the borough. Prevalence of obesity in Trafford adults has increased from 57.3% for the year 2017-2018 to 64% for the year 2018-2019. The percentage of adults who are overweight or obese is similar (statistically significant) to England average of 62.3% (Physical Activity, 2019).
Alcohol misuse represents an emerging threat to health and wellbeing in Trafford. The rate of hospital admissions for alcohol related condition is higher (statistically significant) than England and is rising over time (Local Alcohol Profile, 2019).
Page last updated: 19th January 2021